Skip to main content
Banner Home Page Link
Richmond Law Homepage

Bluebook Basics

A short primer on Bluebook citation formats for federal and state cases and statutes, as well as books, journals, and other secondary sources. N.B. Citation examples use non-academic citation format (i.e., the format for briefs and legal memoranda).

Books, Reports & Other Nonperiodic Materials - Examples

Rule B15 & Rule 15 

  • Single volume book
    • Carol Gilligan, In a Different Voice 125 (1982).
       
  • Book with multiple volumes
    • 3 Michael B. Mushlin, Rights of Prisoners § 2.2 (4th ed. 2009).

For additional examples, see the Basic Bluebooking--Secondary Sources in Legal Documents tipsheet, provided courtesy of the Law Library at the Pace Law School. 

Periodical Materials - Examples

  • Consecutively paginated journals
    • Rules B16.1.1 & 16.4, table T13
    • Corinna Barrett Lain, Upside-Down Judicial Review, 101 Geo. L.J. 113, 122 (2012).
       
  • Student-written materials (notes, comments, recent developments, etc.)
    • Rules B16.1.3 & 16.7.1, table T13
    • Robert Johnson, Note, Extraordinary Rendition: A Wrong Without a Right, 43 U. Rich. L. Rev. 1135 (2009). 
  • Non-consecutively paginated journals
    • Rules B16.1.2 & 16.5, table T13
    • Thomas Keil & Tomi Laamanen, When Rivals Merge, Think Before You Follow Suit, Harv. Bus. Rev., Dec. 2011, at 25.
       
  • Newspapers
    • Rules B16.1.4 & 16.6, table T13
    • Linda Greenhouse, The Court Changes the Game, N.Y. Times, June 30, 2009, at A21.
For additional examples, see the Basic Bluebooking--Secondary Sources in Legal Documents tipsheet, provided courtesy of the Law Library at the Pace Law School. 

Special Citation Forms

  • Rules B8.1 & 15.8
    • 17 Am. Jur. 2d Animals § 27 (2007).
    • Black’s Law Dictionary 750 (9th ed. 2009).

  • American Law Reports
    • Rule 16.7.6
    • Marjorie A. Shields, Annotation, Snowboarder's  Liability for Injuries to or Death of Another Person, 15 A.L.R.6th 161 (2006).

For additional examples, see the Basic Bluebooking--Secondary Sources in Legal Documents tipsheet, provided courtesy of the Law Library at the Pace Law School.

Short Form Citation

Rule B8.2 & Rule 15.10

"Use id. to refer to a book or other nonperiodical material cited in the immediately preceding citation. Otherwise, use 'supra.'" [1] 

"Once a book, report, or other nonperiodic material has been cited in full ..., a short form employing either 'id.' or 'supra' may be used to refer to the work in subsequent citations." [2] 

Rule 4 addresses the use of short citation forms, including the use of 'id.' in Rule 4.1 and use of 'supra' in Rule 4.2. 

Look at the examples listed in Rule B8.2 on page 23 of the Bluebook. 

____________________________

[1] The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation 23 (19th ed. 2010). 
[2] Id. at 145.  

Book Citation - Single Volume

Book Citation Example

Book Citation - Multivolume Book

Multivolume Book Citation Example

Article Citation

Law Review Article Citation Example

Legal Encyclopedia Citation

Encyclopedia Citation Example

American Law Reports Citation

ALR Citation Example

Libguide Window Footer Facebook Link Twitter Link